Welcome back to the 2023 BMJ STI Podcasts. Today we will focus on the worsening Syphilis epidemic worldwide. Syphilis is a bacteria that infects humans, and is transmitted horizontally through close sexual contact and vertically to unborn babies and neonates. It can cause acute and severe illness in those affected, such as neurosyphilis, and have tragic consequences for mother and baby. With the discovery of penicillin, access to testing, and especially public health interventions such as regular testing of asymptomatic, sexually active people and routine antenatal testing, we thought we could start focusing on eradicating Syphilis one day. Alas, over the last decade we have seen what seems an unstoppable rise of syphilis incidence world-wide. In conversation with Prof Clare Nourse, Prof. James Ward and Dr Angelica Espinosa Miranda we explore the issue at hand focusing on Australia and South America.